Last updated: 03-14-2021
Temple Count: 14
Did you know that Sun Wukong (孫悟空), the immortal monkey hero from the great Chinese classic Journey to the West (Xiyouji, 西遊記, 1592), has his own religion? He is mainly worshiped as the “Great Sage Equaling Heaven” (Qitian dasheng, 齊天大聖) in southern China, Taiwan, and Southeast Asian countries like Malaysia, Singapore, and even Thailand and Vietnam.
I recently returned from a trip exploring Great Sage temples in northern and central Taiwan. I’ve decided to mirror a former article by creating a list of Monkey King temples that I’ve visited on the island. This should not be considered comprehensive. I intend to update the article as I visit new locations. I will divide the list according to the closest city/municipality and provide the address if possible. If I’ve already written an article about a particular location, I will add a link to the name.
(Note: Make sure to call each temple ahead of time to learn about the best travel route. Google is not always the most accurate in regards to traveling on foot in the countryside.)
I. Jilong (Keelung)
1) Shengji Gong (聖濟宮) – 1949
I didn’t get any information about the temple during my visit as the caretaker appeared to be mute (or just didn’t want to talk to me). Online information states the temple was built in 1949. Legend has it that the Great Sage saved villagers from rampant fires plaguing Keelung at the time. Like Yilan’s Wujian Ziyu Temple (see below), Shengji’s Great Sage and his army of monkey soldiers are portrayed as martial monks (wuseng, 武僧) with a golden headband and long hair. The alcove housing his statue is called the Shuilian Grotto-Heaven (Shuilian dongtian, 水濓洞天) after Monkey’s home the “Water Curtain Cave” (Shuilian dong, 水簾洞) on the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit. He is flanked on his left and right by Shennong (神農) and Kai Zhang Shengwang (開漳聖王), respectively
2) Qitian Dasheng Miao (齊天大聖廟) – Unknown
No caretakers were present at the time of my visit, so I was unable to ask questions about history or names. All statues were locked inside of a glass display case, along with a blue booklet that caught my eye. It was titled The Great Sage Equaling Heaven’s True Scripture of Awakening People and Enlightening the World (Qitian Dasheng xingren jueshi zhenjing, 齊天大聖醒人覺世眞經). Like in Shengji and Wujian Ziyu Temples, the Great Sage and his monkey army are depicted as martial monks. Also like Shengji, he is flanked, this time on his left, by Kai Zhang Shengwang. He is flanked on his right by Fude Zhengshen (福德正神).
1) Shilin Zheng’an Gong (士林正安宮) – circa 1990
The Zheng’an Temple of Shilin  is definitely the smallest Great Sage house of worship that I’ve yet visited. It appears to be a small, open-front store/apartment unit that has been converted into a temple. It recognizes at least seven Great Sages, each with his own name and purpose. I’m still gathering information on the temple, so I will post their names at a later date. While most such temples have one or two spirit-mediums, Zheng’an has an astounding seven, each of whom reports to a respective Great Sage. During special occasions, the spirit-mediums perform self-mortification with swords, axes, swordfish noses, spiked clubs, and spiked balls.
I had the pleasure of joining the temple on a pilgrimage to the south of Taiwan back in November of 2020. I was even blessed with the opportunity to help carry the Third Prince’s palanquin, which led the way for a much larger vehicle containing Zheng’an’s numerous Great Sage statues. I’ll write more about this in the future.
2) Shuilian Gong (水濂宮) – Unknown
The temple attendants were unable to give me any history on the temple. But I did learn that they worship a trinity: “Great Sage Sun” (Sun Dasheng, 孫大聖), the large central figure (image 1 (27)); the “Black Great Sage” (Hei Dasheng, 黑大聖), the small figure holding the gourd and whip (image 1 (34)); and the “White Great Sage” (Bai Dasheng, 白大聖), the small figure shielding his eyes and holding a staff (image 1 (42)). These color-coded names remind me of the red, white, and black-faced Great Sages from Fujian, the original home of Monkey’s religion. The temple houses many monkey god statues apart from the trinity, likely soldiers. I’ll return to get more info and better pictures. The soot black figures and bright clothing make it hard to get detailed photos.
III. Xinbei (New Taipei)
1) Qitian Dasheng Dian (齊天大聖殿) – circa 2000
I was told by the temple’s ritual master that she received a religious vision from the Great Sage to move from Gaoxiong in the south and look for land with good fengshui for a temple. After her third move, she founded her temple in the mountainous region of Bali. While the temple has several monkey statues, each is considered a different aspect of the singular “Lord Great Sage” (Dasheng ye, 大聖爺) or “Great Sage Patriarch” (Dasheng zushi, 大聖祖師).
The area behind the temple features a garden with a colorful, life-sized statue of the Great Sage seated on a throne. He holds a peach of immortality in one hand and his staff in the other. His throne rests on an elevated rock outcropping painted with the characters for the “Mountain of Flowers and Fruit” (Huaguo shan, 花菓山). A series of concrete steps laid within the folds of the rocks takes you to a private heaven further into the mountain with flowers and guava, papaya, banana, and tangerine crops. It’s a great experience.
Be forewarned: The route that Google told me to walk from the bus stop was NOT reliable. My GPS took me through a neglected cemetery up the side of a mountain. I had to cut a path through the forest, jump streams, and climb rocks before I finally arrived all sweaty and dirty. The temple personnel were amazed that I made such a trip because the route was completely unnecessary. They told me of a road leading directly to the temple! Apparently my GPS showed me the most direct route instead of the slightly longer, yet far more practical one. I highly suggest walking from the foot of Duchuantou Rd. (渡船頭路) and following the signs to the temple.
On the bright side, the caretakers were so thrilled to learn of my great interest in their god that they treated me to tea, fruit, and snacks. They are very welcoming people.
2) Banqiao Yunsheng Gong (板橋雲聖宮) – Unknown
This temple was closed when I visited. I had to shoot pictures through two sliding glass doors. It is very small, possibly as small or even smaller than Zheng’an Temple in Taipei.
3) Qitian Dasheng Miao (齊天大聖廟) or Qitian Dasheng Ye Miao (齊天大聖爺廟) – Unknown, possibly new
The caretaker told me that the temple had not yet been consecrated and therefore wouldn’t let me take any pictures inside. However, a Chinese comment on Google says the temple “isn’t open to the outside world”, suggesting that it’s closed to the public. Based on what little I could see, the building unit appears to be someone’s home/business/personal altar. Rows and rows of god statues packaged for sale lined shelves against a back wall.
1) Wujian Ziyu Si (五間紫雲寺) – 1960
Legend has it that around 1899 a man found a monkey-shaped stone and enshrined it in a thatched shed. This was eventually converted to a temple a few years later. It was destroyed by a typhoon in 1960 but subsequently rebuilt. The temple appears to recognize a trinity, with countless monkey soldiers beneath them, each portrayed as martial monks with a golden fillet and long hair. The Great Sage has two aspects: the “Martial Great Sage” (Wu Dasheng, 武大聖) (standing statues), who exorcises evil, and the “Civil Great Sage” (Wen Dasheng, 文大聖) (seated statues), who insures the safety of people and animals.
V. Xinzhu (Hsinchu)
1) Shenglong Gong (聖龍宮) – 2016
This temple is famous for its nine-meter-tall (29.52 ft.) statue of the Great Sage, which is apparently the tallest in Taiwan. I was told that it was shipped from Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China. The members appear to only revere a single monkey god, whom they call the “Buddha Great Sage Equaling Heaven” (Qitian Dasheng Foye, 齊天大聖佛爺). The smaller statue in front of the taller one was the original focus of worship at a devotee’s home prior to the building of the temple.
VI. Taizhong (Taichung)
1) Yusheng Si (玉聖寺) – 1959
Records for the original temple apparently go back to the Xianfeng (1850-1861) period. According to legend, Yusheng was built at the behest of a beggar who revealed himself to be the Great Sage. The current house of worship was built in 1959. The members appear to recognize at least five Great Sages (maybe more). I was told that they don’t have individual names; though, the members may have been apprehensive to share secrets with a random foreigner. They just refer to them as “Lord Great Sage Equaling Heaven” (Qitian Dasheng Ye, 齊天大聖爺). One figure has a painted face similar to pestilence gods (wenshen, 瘟神). Perhaps this version of the Great Sage serves a similar purpose. It’s interesting to note that several statues are shown holding spiked balls like those used by spirit-mediums.
2) Wuji Tianyi Jiancha Gong Tiantan (無極天壹監察宮天壇) – Unknown
This temple was closed when I visited. I had to shoot pictures of their lovely statue over the gate. I’m guessing it’s four to five-meters-tall based on the ding censor in front. I plan to go back at a later time to get pictures of the temple interior.
I did see a black command flag (Hokkien: or leng ki; Ch: hei leng qi, 黑令旗) out front, which signifies that a spirit-medium is active in the temple.
(Update: 04-24-21 – I was informed that this location is only used for particular festival days. The main temple is located at 404台中市北區富強街117巷17號.)
VII. Beigang, Yunlin
1) Shengfo Tang (聖佛堂) – Unknown
No attendants were present when I visited, so I couldn’t ask any questions about history or beliefs. The small temple appears to recognize three Great Sages, each represented with golden eyes. The larger central figure is depicted as a martial monk with long hair, while those to his left and right have animalistic, furry faces. Interestingly, the main statue is immediately flanked on both sides by a single wooden pole topped by a black or red Great Sage bag puppet, each depicted as a martial monk. A paper fan and two framed ink on paper paintings indicate the monkey god is referred to as the “Fighting Sage Buddha” (Douzhan sheng fo, 鬥戰聖佛). This is a variant of the deity’s lesser used title, the “Victorious Fighting Buddha” (Dou zhansheng fo, 鬥戰勝佛).
The main altar is flanked on the right by various Buddhist deities and on the left by Daoist gods.
The front of the building is adorned with two Great Sage spirit generals (shenjiang, 神將) , something I’ve never before seen but have heard of; as well as a large black command flag, indicating the presence of a tangki spirit-medium. A large, ornate spiked ball, like those used by mediums, was positioned on the offerings table between statues of San Taizi and bottles of rice wine.
The temple is located down the street from a small joss stick factory. It was interesting to see brightly-colored bundles and rolling trays of the sticks being aired out to dry.
VIII. Chiayi (Jiayi)
1) Jisheng Gong (吉聖宮) – 1979
While an attendant with a thick Taiwanese accent told me the temple was “very, very old”, online information indicates that it was founded in 1979. Legend has it that Lord Guan sent the Great Sage to heal the head injury of a member of the Li (李) family, leading to their worship of the monkey god. (This suggests Lord Guan is considered a superior of the Great Sage in Jisheng’s celestial hierarchy). The current Great Sage statue is apparently based on an original one that presided over the incense pot at a Lord Guan temple and was later kept in the Li family home. It sits in a man-made cave, along with other monkey figures and Buddho-Daoist gods, behind metal bars. It holds a banana leaf fan like that wielded by Lady Ironfan.
A large metal rod, a replica of the monkey god’s magic staff, is locked to a side wall when not in use by the temple’s spirit-medium. It is plastered with a paper talisman.
A hall to the right of the temple houses several spirit general costumes of various protector deities.
1) Wanfu An (萬福庵) – 1660s
Wanfu is touted as the oldest Qitian Dasheng temple on the island, originally serving as the home of an anti-Qing general’s wife during the Southern Ming (c. 1660s), which was later converted to a house of worship following her death. It was known for taking in orphans during the early-19th-century. The temple recognizes a trinity of Great Sages, followed by a small handful in administrative positions, and finally a plethora of soldier monkeys. The highest-ranking member of the trinity is a 300-plus-year-old Fujianese stone statue called “Laying the Foundations Elder Great Sage” (Kaiji Da Dasheng, 開基大大聖). The temple has a single spirit-medium. But the last time I checked, he was training a disciple, his nephew.
Great Sage temples from all over Taiwan look upon Wanfu as a fount of pure energy, visiting every year to procure its incense ashes in order to replenish their spiritual armies. Spirit-mediums are thought to direct these soldiers in battle while possessed by the monkey god. I personally witnessed this ash ceremony during the Shilin Zheng’an Temple pilgrimage (as noted earlier). I saw at least three other temples waiting for their turn. I’m sure many more visited that day and the next.
1) Not to be confused with other Zheng’an Temples in Taiwan.
2) Large, bulky costumes that rest on a performer’s shoulders. They see out through holes in the chest. Such costumes are worn during religious processions, and the walking movement causes hinged arms to swing to and fro.
2 thoughts on “Qitian Dasheng Monkey King Temples in Taiwan”
I have recently come across your blog, and as someone who grew up with books on the journey to the west passed from my 奶奶, I really enjoy reading through this. Keep up the amazing work and thank you for helping to make this epic story more mainstream and delving into it!
I’m so happy that you like my work. I consider it my duty to research all things Journey to the West.