Qitian Dasheng Monkey King Temples in Taiwan

Last updated: 03/14/2021

Temple Count: 14

I recently returned from a trip exploring Great Sage temples in northern and central Taiwan. I’ve decided to mirror a former article by creating a list of Monkey King temples that I’ve visited on the island. This should not be considered comprehensive. I intend to update the article as I visit new locations. I will divide the list according to the closest city/municipality and provide the address if possible. If I’ve already written an article about a particular location, I will add a link to the name. All current listed temple ages are as of 2021.

Many temples recognize more than one Great Sage (usually three or more), with those worshiping a single figure being a minority. Like in Singapore, spirit-mediums (Hokkien: tangki, 童乩; Ch: jitong, 乩童) who channel the monkey god play an important role in the Great Sage’s religion. The “Third Prince” (Santazi, 三太子, a.k.a. Nezha, 哪吒) serves as his vanguard both in the temple and during religious processions. This is certainly interesting given that the two were once foes. [1]

(Note: Always consult Google before visiting these temples.)

I. Jilong (Keelung)

1) Shengji Gong (聖濟宮) – 72-years-old

Address: 202基隆市中正區中船路112巷30弄95號

I didn’t get any information about the temple during my visit as the caretaker appeared to be mute (or just didn’t want to talk to me). Online information states the temple was built in 1949. Legend has it that the Great Sage saved villagers from rampant fires plaguing Keelung at the time. Like Yilan’s Wujian Ziyu Temple (see below), Shengji’s Great Sage and his army of monkey soldiers are portrayed as martial monks (wuseng, 武僧) with a golden headband and long hair. The alcove housing his statue is called the Shuilian Grotto-Heaven (Shuilian dongtian, 水濓洞天) after Monkey’s home the “Water Curtain Cave” (Shuilian dong, 水簾洞) on the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit. He is flanked on his left and right by Shennong (神農) and Kai Zhang Shengwang (開漳聖王), respectively

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1vaBUC9QD_abFmNL4ptv0zbvw9pmzjhF2?usp=sharing

2. Qitian Dasheng Miao (齊天大聖廟) – Unknown

Address: 203基隆市中山區中山二路89巷31號

No caretakers were present at the time of my visit, so I was unable to ask questions about history or names. All statues were locked inside of a glass display case, along with a blue booklet that caught my eye. It was titled “The Great Sage Equaling Heaven’s True Scripture of Awakening People and Enlightening the World” (Qitian Dasheng xingren jueshi zhenjing, 齊天大聖醒人覺世眞經). Like in Shengji and Wujian Ziyu Temples, the Great Sage and his monkey army are depicted as martial monks. Also like Shengji, he is flanked, this time on his left, by Kai Zhang Shengwang. He is flanked on his right by Fude Zhengshen (福德正神).

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1Cq9UgXbgMIBLDtfpcB0Nc4p9iH03QioL?usp=sharing

II. Taipei

1) Shilin Zhengan Gong (士林正安宮) – 31-years-old

Address: 111台北市士林區士東路2巷5號

The Zhengan Temple of Shilin [2] is definitely the smallest Great Sage house of worship that I’ve yet visited. It appears to be a small, open-front store/apartment unit that has been converted into a temple. It recognizes at least seven Great Sages, each with his own name and purpose. I’m still gathering information on the temple, so I will post their names at a later date. While most such temples have one or two spirit-mediums, Zhengan has an astounding seven, each of whom reports to a respective Great Sage. During special occasions, the spirit-mediums perform self-mortification with swords, axes, swordfish noses, spiked clubs, and spiked balls.

I had the pleasure of joining the temple on a pilgrimage to the south of Taiwan back in November of 2020. I was even blessed with the opportunity to help carry the Third Prince’s palanquin, which led the way for a much larger vehicle containing Zhengan’s numerous Great Sage statues. I’ll write more about this in the future.

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1Ige-9Bq2ATYqif2Z4ya8SP78gfKefD4w?usp=sharing

2) Shuilian Gong (水濂宮) – Unknown

Address: 108台北市萬華區環河南路一段344號

The temple attendants were unable to give me any history on the temple. But I did learn that they worship a trinity: “Great Sage Sun” (Sun Dasheng, 孫大聖), the large central figure (image 1 (27)); the “Black Great Sage” (Hei Dasheng, 黑大聖), the small figure holding the gourd and whip (image 1 (34)); and the “White Great Sage” (Bai Dasheng, 白大聖), the small figure shielding his eyes and holding a staff (image 1 (42)). These color-coded names remind me of the Black and White Spirits of Impermanence, death gods who summon the souls of the recently deceased to the underworld. The temple houses many monkey god statues apart from the trinity, likely soldiers. I’ll return to get more info and better pictures. The soot black figures and bright clothing make it hard to get detailed photos.

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1UyWxxnGIVywGJnaUGkMrHGermibltCXT?usp=sharing

III. Xinbei (New Taipei)

1) Qitian Dasheng Dian (齊天大聖殿) – 20-years-old

Address: 249新北市八里區渡船頭路9號

I was told by the temple’s ritual master that she received a religious vision from the Great Sage to move from Gaoxiong in the south and look for land with good fengshui for a temple. After her third move, she founded her temple in the mountainous region of Bali. While the temple has several monkey statues, each is considered a different aspect of the singular “Lord Great Sage” (大聖爺) or “Great Sage Patriarch” (大聖祖師).

The area behind the temple features a garden with a colorful, life-sized statue of the Great Sage seated on a throne. He holds a peach of immortality in one hand and his staff in the other. His throne rests on an elevated rock outcropping painted with the characters for the “Mountain of Flowers and Fruit” (Huaguo shan, 花菓山). A series of concrete steps laid within the folds of the rocks takes you to a private heaven further into the mountain with flowers and guava, papaya, banana, and tangerine crops. It’s a great experience.

Be forewarned: The route that Google told me to take was NOT reliable. My GPS took me through a neglected cemetery up the side of a mountain. I had to cut a path through the forest, jump streams, and climb rocks before I finally arrived all sweaty and dirty. The temple personnel were amazed that I made such a trip because the route was completely unnecessary. They told me of a road leading directly to the temple! Apparently my GPS showed me the most direct route instead of the slightly longer, yet far more practical one. I highly suggest walking from the foot of Duchuantou Rd. (渡船頭路) and following the signs to the temple.

On the bright side, the caretakers were so thrilled to learn of my great interest in their god that they treated me to tea, fruit, and snacks. They are very welcoming people.  

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/161igI_2WvLPOzmLL2_0YOjqYvBQYdB4H?usp=sharing

2) 板橋雲聖宮 (Banqiao Yunsheng Gong) – Unknown

Address: 220新北市板橋區富山街84號

This temple was closed when I visited. I had to shoot pictures through two sliding glass doors. It is very small, possibly as small or even smaller than Zhengan Temple in Taipei.

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1re34-X4BSyhLiWM0uqIIt_K096jHC7uD?usp=sharing

3) Qitian Dasheng Miao (齊天大聖廟) or Qitian Dasheng Ye Miao (齊天大聖爺廟) – Unknown, possibly new

Address: 238新北市樹林區佳園路一段41巷6號

The caretaker told me that the temple had not yet been consecrated and therefore wouldn’t let me take any pictures inside. However, a Chinese comment on Google says the temple “isn’t open to the outside world”, suggesting that it’s closed to the public. Based on what little I could see, the building unit appears to be someone’s home/business/personal altar. Rows and rows of god statues packaged for sale lined shelves against a back wall.

(Left) The closed front of the temple (larger version). (Right) One of two lamps hanging out front (larger version).

IV. Yilan

1) Wujian Ziyu Si (五間紫雲寺) – 61-years-old (current temple)

Address: 263宜蘭縣壯圍鄉大福路三段449號

Legend has it that around 1899 a man found a monkey-shaped stone and enshrined it in a thatched shed. This was eventually converted to a temple a few years later. It was destroyed by a typhoon in 1960 but subsequently rebuilt. The temple appears to recognize a trinity, with countless monkey soldiers beneath them, each portrayed as martial monks with a golden fillet and long hair. The Great Sage has two aspects: the “Martial Great Sage” (Wu Dasheng, 武大聖) (standing statues), who exorcises evil, and the “Civil Great Sage” (Wen Dasheng, 文大聖) (seated statues), who insures the safety of people and animals.

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1vJKa55zmDfNWGEeMQw8PhEGbE5cusLS5?usp=sharing

V. Xinzhu (Hsinchu)

1) Shenglong Gong (聖龍宮) – 5-years-old

Address: 310新竹縣竹東鎮中豐路三段187號

This temple is famous for its nine-meter-tall (29.52 ft.) statue of the Great Sage, which is apparently the tallest in Taiwan. I was told that it was shipped from Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China. The members appear to only revere a single monkey god, whom they call the “Buddha Great Sage Equaling Heaven” (Qitian Dasheng Foye, 齊天大聖佛爺). The smaller statue in front of the taller one was the original focus of worship at a devotee’s home prior to the building of the temple.

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1CZIRo_1BeJR3xQa60MUnZ_-OkLuJW3Ql?usp=sharing

VI. Taizhong (Taichung)

1) Yusheng Si (玉聖寺) – 62-years-old (current temple)

Address: 436台中市清水區頂湳路73號

Records for the original temple apparently go back to the Xianfeng (1850-1861) period. According to legend, Yusheng was built at the behest of a beggar who revealed himself to be the Great Sage. The current house of worship was built in 1959. The members appear to recognize at least five Great Sages (maybe more). I was told that they don’t have individual names; though, the members may have been apprehensive to share secrets with a random foreigner. They just refer to them as “Lord Great Sage Equaling Heaven” (Qitian Dasheng Ye, 齊天大聖爺). One figure has a painted face similar to pestilence gods (wenshen, 瘟神). Perhaps this version of the Great Sage serves a similar purpose. It’s interesting to note that several statues are shown holding spiked balls like those used by spirit-mediums.

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1nvbFtRV7zSBL8mPdIlvUkXWW9Frtlu3t?usp=sharing

2) Wuji Tianyi Jiancha Gong Tiantan (無極天壹監察宮天壇) – Unknown

Address: 406台中市北屯區太原路三段1398號

This temple was closed when I visited. I had to shoot pictures of their lovely statue over the gate. I’m guessing it’s four to five-meters-tall based on the ding censor in front. I plan to go back at a later time to get pictures of the temple interior.

I did see a black command flag (Hokkien: or leng ki; Ch: hei leng qi, 黑令旗) out front, which signifies that a spirit-medium is active in the temple.

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1WFN11cayjbQvYGP2UlOTKNvjEVtiBj94?usp=sharing

VII. Beigang, Yunlin

1) Shengfo Tang (聖佛堂) – Unknown

Address: 651雲林縣北港鎮文化路198-1號

No attendants were present when I visited, so I couldn’t ask any questions about history or beliefs. The small temple appears to recognize three Great Sages, each represented with golden eyes. The larger central figure is depicted as a martial monk with long hair, while those to his left and right have animalistic, furry faces. Interestingly, the main statue is immediately flanked on both sides by a single wooden pole topped by a black or red Great Sage bag puppet, each depicted as a martial monk. A paper fan and two framed ink on paper paintings indicate the monkey god is referred to as the “Fighting Sage Buddha” (Dou zhan sheng fo, 鬥戰聖佛). This is a variant of the deity’s lesser used title, the “Victorious Fighting Buddha” (Dou zhansheng fo, 鬥戰勝佛).

The main altar is flanked on the right by various Buddhist deities and on the left by Daoist gods.

The front of the building is adorned with two Great Sage spirit generals (shenjiang, 神將) [3], something I’ve never before seen but have heard of; as well as a large black command flag, indicating the presence of a tangki spirit-medium. A large, ornate spiked ball, like those used by mediums, was positioned on the offerings table between statues of San Taizi and bottles of rice wine.

The temple is located down the street from a small joss stick factory. It was interesting to see brightly-colored bundles and rolling trays of the sticks being aired out to dry.

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1qAIvC31izqKt49tTyQYSjxIOPx7T8P7D?usp=sharing

VIII. Chiayi (Jiayi)

1) Jisheng Gong (吉聖宮) – 42-years-old

Address: 嘉義市林森東路691巷139弄65號

While an attendant with a thick Taiwanese accent told me the temple was “very, very old”, online information indicates that it was founded in 1979. Legend has it that Lord Guan sent the Great Sage to heal the head injury of a member of the Li (李) family, leading to their worship of the monkey god. (This suggests Lord Guan is considered a superior of the Great Sage in Jisheng’s celestial hierarchy). The current Great Sage statue is apparently based on an original one that presided over the incense pot at a Lord Guan temple and was later kept in the Li family home. It sits in a man-made cave, along with other monkey figures and Buddho-Daoist gods, behind metal bars. It holds a banana leaf fan like that wielded by Lady Ironfan.

A large metal rod, a replica of the monkey god’s magic staff, is locked to a side wall when not in use by the temple’s spirit-medium. It is plastered with a paper talisman.

A hall to the right of the temple houses several spirit general costumes of various protector deities.

Photos:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/18lm0qI1xKO3oSk3Ey-_ARzbxPUkSkpou?usp=sharing

IX. Tainan

1) Wanfu An (萬福庵) – 350-something-years-old

Address: 700台南市中西區民族路二段317巷5號

Wanfu is touted as the oldest Qitian Dasheng temple on the island, originally serving as the home of an anti-Qing general’s wife during the Southern Ming (c. 1660s), which was later converted to a house of worship following her death. It was known for taking in orphans during the early-19th-century. The temple recognizes a trinity of Great Sages, followed by a small handful in administrative positions, and finally a plethora of soldier monkeys. The highest-ranking member of the trinity is a 300-plus-year-old Fujianese stone statue called “Laying the Foundations Elder Great Sage” (Kaiji Da Dasheng, 開基大大聖). The temple has a single spirit-medium. But the last time I checked, he was training a disciple, his nephew.

Great Sage temples from all over Taiwan look upon Wanfu as a fount of pure energy, visiting every year to procure its incense ashes in order to replenish their spiritual armies. Spirit-mediums are thought to direct these soldiers in battle while possessed by the monkey god. I personally witnessed this ash ceremony during the Shilin Zhengang Temple pilgrimage (as noted earlier). I saw at least three other temples waiting for their turn. I’m sure many more visited that day and the next.

Pictures:

https://drive.google.com/drive/u/1/folders/18sfP50TewbWEbUkFl77VV45ddGRiDLW4

Notes:

1) See chapter four of Journey to the West.

2) Not to be confused with other Zhengan Temples in Taiwan.

3) Large, bulky costumes that rest on a performer’s shoulders. They see out through holes in the chest. Such costumes are worn during religious processions, and the walking movement causes hinged arms to swing to and fro.

The Great Sage Purple Cloud Temple of Yilan, Taiwan: A Photo Essay

I recently visited another Great Sage temple, this time the Wujian Purple Cloud Temple (Wujian Ziyu si, 五間紫雲寺) of Yilan (宜蘭), Taiwan. The temple was bustling with people during the Chinese New Year celebrations, so I didn’t have time to ask many questions. This entry will serve more as a picture essay until I return to conduct proper research.

1. History

Legend has it that around 1899 a man found a monkey-shaped stone and enshrined it in a thatched shed. This was eventually converted to a temple a few years later. It was destroyed by a typhoon in 1960 but subsequently rebuilt. The temple appears to recognize a trinity, with countless monkey soldiers beneath them. The Great Sage has two aspects: the “Martial Great Sage” (Wu Dasheng, 武大聖) (standing statues), who exorcises evil, and the “Civil Great Sage” (Wen Dasheng, 文大聖) (seated statues), who insures the safety of people and animals.

2. How to get there

(Note: Always consult google if you are directionally challenged like myself)

Address: No. 449, Section 3, Dafu Road, Zhuangwei Township, Yilan County, Taiwan, 263

I took bus #1571 (google calls it #1571A) from gate 15 of the Taiwan City Hall Bus Station. This heads towards the Yilan Bus Station. (If you plan to take this route, please note that buses headed to different areas of Yilan will board from this gate. So pay very close attention to the calls of the bus station attendant. For example, they called “Jiaoxi” (礁溪) (bus #1572), a small township in Yilan, and those waiting for another destination had to stand off to the side while those from different sections of the line made their way to the front. If you aren’t careful, you might end up on the wrong bus.) My destination was the first stop, the Zhuangwei (壯圍) bus stop, a small shelter by an overpass. My short walk to the temple took me passed rows of flooded rice fields and small patches of buildings.

(Click images for larger versions)

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Gate 15 at the Taiwan City Hall Bus Station.

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The Zhuangwei bus stop shelter (as seen from the opposite outgoing bus stop).

1a - Map to Purple Cloud Temple

The route map from the Zhuangwei bus stop to the temple.

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Random rice fields along Gonglao Road (see map).

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A panorama of a rice field next to Lane 423, Sect. 3, Dafu Road (see map). 

3. The Outside

The temple is located on the side of a busy road. It appears almost out of nowhere since the face of the holy structure is in line with the buildings on either side. The first thing that caught my eye was the highly ornate roof of the furnace covered in mythical creatures, divine heroes, and gods, features typical of South Chinese and Taiwanese temple architecture. Each face of the hexagonal body was covered with beautiful carvings on black marble, two of which included the pilgrims from Journey to the West.

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The furnace visible on the left side of the temple (as seen from the road).

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A marble carving of Guanyin, the White Dragon Horse, Monkey, and Tripitaka.

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A detail of Monkey.

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Monkey, Sha Wujing, Tripitaka on the White Dragon Horse, and Zhu Bajie.

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A detail of the group.

The front of the temple houses an ornate statue of three brightly colored dragons enclosed in a fence. Looking up, I noticed beautiful hand-painted dragons and Qilin on the ceiling, along with paintings of events from Chinese mythology and Journey to the West on the cross beams. Walking towards one of the five entrances, I noticed the facade was covered in highly detailed stone carvings, some depicting events from the novel.

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The front of the Purple Cloud Temple.

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The front of the temple. Three of the five entrances are visible behind the dragons.

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A detail of the three dragon statues.

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Five hand-painted dragons on the ceiling. The Eight Immortals grace the crossbeam below. 

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A pair of Qilin on the ceiling. The cross beam below portrays an event from Prince Nezha‘s life.

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Zhu Bajie protecting his master from the ogre that will become Sha Wujing.

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Monkey escaping from Laozi’s furnace.

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A stone carving on the facade showing Monkey (top right), Zhu bajie (top center right), and Sha Wujing (center left) battling a monster (top left). The image has been enhanced for clarity.

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Monkey (center) battling the heavenly army. Enhanced for clarity. 

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Monkey (center) leaping from Laozi’s furnace. Enhanced for clarity. Apologies for the blur. 

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A detail of Monkey leaping.

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The Great Sage (top center) and his monkey army battling heaven. Enhanced for clarity. These are just a few of the many carvings covering the temple facade. 

4. The Inside

The interior hall is wide yet shallow in depth and split between three altars, Folk religion to the right, the Great Sage in the Center, and Daoist to the left. I must admit in my zeal to photograph anything Monkey-related, I completely forgot to take pictures of the other two sections. This online image shows the folk section includes Mazu, Budai, and other deities. This image shows the Daoist section includes the Jade emperor, the Earth god, and others. Surprisingly, the incense burner in front of the main entrance was not marked with the name of the Great Sage (unlike what I’ve seen at other such temples) but that of the Jade Emperor, 玉皇上帝 (Yuhuang shangdi).

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The main hall.

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The incense burner bearing the name of the Jade Emperor (visible from the hall looking out the main door).

Upon entering the right side of the main hall, the first thing that caught my eye was a large wooden sculpture of a tree-bound monkey holding onto a branch with one hand and a pair of peaches in the other. Immediately behind him was a stone carving of a vague monkey with two children. (I’m not sure of the ritual importance of either statue. I’ll report on this later. However, I will say the stone statue recalls Sun Wukong’s origins as a stone monkey.) Next to both statues is one of two cylindrical towers, one positioned on each end of the hall. Each is topped by a Great Sage statue and the towers themselves are comprised of hundreds of small compartments, each filled with a small Great Sage figure. These represent a donor who has given money to the temple.

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The wooden monkey statue.

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A detail of the monkey holding peaches.

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The stone monkey with children.

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The tower of donor Great Sages.

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The Great Sage topping each tower. He holds a fly whisk in one hand and a peach of immortality in the other.

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The many compartments.

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A mini Great Sage donor figure. He sits on a throne with his staff held over head in one hand and a calabash gourd held to his front in the other. 

4.1. The Great Sage Altar

The central offering table to the Great Sage was covered in all sorts of fruits, candies, and flowers. Also included were an incense burner, offerings of wine, and a pair of crescent moon-shaped wooden blocks. These blocks are used in tandem with fortune sticks and oracles revealed on slips of paper, all of which are housed in a metal cylinder to the left of the table (see section three of this article on how these items are used).

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The table laden with offerings. Take note of the young woman praying to the Great Sage. She told me that she was from Vietnam and that Monkey was not a common deity there.

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The incense burner (back center), tea offerings (three cups visible in the center) and wooden blocks (front right).

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The metal cylinder housing the fortune sticks (top), with the corresponding oracles located in each of the surrounding drawers.

Like in other parts of Taiwan and Singapore, this temple appears to recognize a plethora of Great Sages, from a holy trinity to an army of soldier monkeys. (I don’t yet know their individual names. I will report on this later.) All of the Great Sage figures are portrayed with golden armor, red-painted humanoid faces, golden fillets, and long, dark hair. The headband and long hair are no doubt influenced by depictions of Military Monks (Wuseng, 武僧) from Chinese opera (Bonds, 2008, pp. 177-178 and 328). Red face paint is also associated with such characters (Bonds, 2008, p. 211). While the red paint of the statues references the red faces of macaque monkeys, it definitely plays into the military monk personna. Portraying Monkey as such defines him as a divine warrior and a guardian deity.

Military Monk - Beijing Opera (Bonds, 2008)

A military monk from a modern Beijing Opera production (Bonds, 2008, p. 178).

I was pleasantly surprised to see statues of Zhu Bajie appear among the Great Sage’s army. It’s quite appropriate given this is the year of the pig according to the Chinese zodiac. Also included were statues of Ksitigarbha and Nezha.

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The three main Great Sages visible in front of the ornate dragon statue. Note the long hair.

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Statues of Zhu Bajie among Monkey’s soldiers.

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More soldier monkeys. Take note of the Ksitigarbha (front right).

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Nezha figures mixed in with the monkey soldiers (left).

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This soldier monkey holds a calabash gourd at the ready.

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More Nezha figures among the soldiers (right).

I have more pictures of the interior but I’ll leave those for a later article. Lastly, I want to share one of the temple flags stationed opposite the main building.

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(Left) “Great Sage Equaling Heaven”. (Right) “(Yi)lan Wujian Purple Cloud Temple”.

Sources:

Bonds, A. B. (2008). Beijing Opera Costumes: The Visual Communication of Character and Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.