This book alone is extremely interesting, because it shows the sheer amount of syncretism that is found in Chinese popular religion: It freely combines Buddhist and Daoist elements. The first text in this book is not actually the Great Sage scripture itself, but rather The Thousand-Handed and Thousand-Eyed Bodhisattva Guanshiyin’s Great Compassion Heart Mantra (Qianshou qianyan Guanshiyin pusa dabbixin tuoluoni, 千手千眼觀世音菩薩大悲心陀羅尼), better known as the Great Compassion Mantra (Dabei Zhou, 大悲咒), followed by the celebrated Heart Sutra (Xinjing, 心經), here called by its full name the Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra (Bore boluomi duo xinjing, 般若波羅蜜多心經) (pp. 9-13). Both are quintessentially Buddhist texts. These are, however, followed by a set of mantras for cleansing the body and the surroundings, which are associated with Daoist rites (starting from p. 13).
This is followed again with a “Precious Admonition of the Great Sage Equalling Heaven” (Qitian Dasheng Baogao, 齊天大聖寶誥) (p. 25). This format—effectively a hymn—is a liturgical form that is associated exclusively with Daoist scriptures (Cf. the set phrase 志心皈命禮 on p. 26).  Then, you have a list of salutations of four Buddhas and bodhisattvas, and five Heavenly Worthies (Tianzun, 天尊) (Daoist deities), all of which are equally saluted by the Sanskrit “Namo” (南無) (pp. 28-30).
The scripture itself starts on page 30, and has five chapters in total. Chapter one is titled “Cultivating the Body and Rectifying Fate” (Xiushen liming di yi zhang, 修身立命第一章) (p. 30). Chapter two is titled “Entering Sagacity and Transcending Ordinariness” (Ru sheng chaofan di er zhang, 入聖超凡第二章) (p. 33). Chapter three is titled “Returning to the Origin of Brilliance and Kindness” (Mingshan fu chu di san zhang, 明善復初第三章) (p. 40). What is interesting in this text, however, is that between chapters two and three, there is a lengthy section titled “True Words of the Great Sage Equalling Heaven” (Qitian Dasheng zhenyan, 齊天大聖眞言) (p. 36).  This is absent in the online edition. Chapter 4 is titled “Cause, Effect, and Retribution” (Yinguo baoying di si zhang, 因果報應第四章) (p. 44). The fifth and final chapter is titled “Cultivating Both Internally and Externally” (Neiwai shuangxiu di wu zhang, 內外雙修第五章) (p. 52). In this particular edition of the Great Sage Scripture, between chapters four and five are found a long list of evils that reciting this scripture can resolve (this is also not found on the online edition) (pp. 48-52). Our Daoist readers may find this similar to a list found in the very, very Daoist “Big Dipper Scripture” (Beidou jing, 北斗經), which I translate here.
The text ends with a hymn called “In Praise of the Great Sage Equalling Heaven” (Qitian Dasheng zan, 齊天大聖讚) (p. 56), followed by a text called “The Essentials of Cultivating the Dao” (Xiudao shouyao pian, 修道首要篇) (p. 57). This is immediately followed by the “Mantra of the Seven Buddhas to Extinguish Offences” (Qi fo miezui zhenyan, 七佛滅罪眞言) (p. 59). Syncretism indeed. On the last page we have a picture of the Buddhist god Weituo (韋馱) (fig. 1), who stands guard on the last page of scriptures to protect them (p. 65). Thus we have an extremely Daoist text literally bookended by Buddhism.
We are hence immensely grateful to Jim for uploading scans of this scripture. As even from this preliminary reading shows, it preserves liturgical texts that are not found in online editions of the scripture. The online presence of non-Buddhist Chinese religious works is extremely poor and patchy; we have nothing like the Taisho Tripitaka to work on; every scripture uploaded advances our knowledge greatly. By observing not just the scripture itself, but also its front and back matter that is printed along with it, we can tell how the scripture was used by the religious communities that produced it—something again that gets lost in transmission.
Some words should be said about the format of the book. The book is clearly bound in what is called in the west the “Concertina format”. This format is unique to religious books, thereby increasing its authenticity as a holy work. But also more importantly, makes the book very easy to use in a liturgical context: it lays absolutely flat, and is easy to turn—valuable features if you are chanting off the scripture. In turn, on some pages, you see little dashes and dots besides the characters (fig. 2) (p. 13, for example). These are indications of the percussion—when the various gongs and bells are to be struck. These factors—along with the inclusion of several hymns inserted between chapters of the scripture—would lead me to conclude that this book represents not just a scripture to be contemplated, but a scripture prepared for public performance as a ritual (refer back to “True Words of the Great Sage Equalling Heaven” between ch. 2 and 3). The appended mantras, percussion, and inserted hymns, would only make sense in a context where people would chant the scripture in a grand ceremony: they would be irrelevant if the text was produced with quiet study and contemplation in mind. I could be wrong, though.
1) For a Chinese example of another “Precious Admonition”, see here. My translation of another can be seen here.
2) “True Words” 真言 is one of the names by which mantras are known in Chinese. Thus, the term “True Words of the Great Sage” might just as well be read as “Mantra of the Great Sage”.
I am absolutely thrilled to share a PDF scan of The Great Sage Equaling Heaven’s True Scripture of Awakening People and Enlightening the World (Qitian Dasheng xingren jueshi zhenjing, 齊天大聖醒人覺世眞/真經). That’s right, the Monkey King has a holy book! I first learned of it when I visited the Great Sage Equaling Heaven Temple (Qitian Dasheng Miao, 齊天大聖廟) in the Zhongshan District of Keelung, Taiwan. I had spent a few minutes taking pictures, when I briefly looked back through the images to make sure they weren’t blurry (a common problem when photographing in dimly lit temples). This is when I saw a blue booklet tucked among the altar statues (fig. 1 and 2). I hadn’t notice it upon first inspecting the figures. But once I looked up and read the characters, I knew I had found something special.
After posting about it online and inquiring with my monkey temple contacts, a gentleman from Taichung wrote me on Facebook and offered to send me a copy free of charge (a BIG thank you to Mr. Chen). A few days later, I received a package in the mail and was delighted to find he had sent me an exact copy as that seen in Keelung.
The resulting scans are the product of an overhead scanner set to document mode. I found the book mode cropped off the page numbers and slightly widened the characters when the program attempted to flatten the curved pages. Still, the final product is not perfect as the accordion-style pages can’t be laid perfectly flat.
The document states that this is the fourth batch printed in September of 2006. I’m not sure when it was first written; though, I’ve been told by a few informants that it is likely the product of the “flying phoenix” (feiluan, 飛鸞), otherwise known as “planchette writing” or “spirit writing” (fuji, 扶乩 / 扶箕). Jordan and Overmyer (1986) note the Chapel of Compassion and Goodness (Cishan Tang, 慈善堂) of the Society of Wisdom and Enlightenment (Huiming She, 慧明社) in Tainan published a book via the planchette in 1965 with 724 “revelations” from assorted Buddhist and Daoist deities, including the Great Sage (pp. 107-108). Perhaps this scripture is part of that tradition. A tangki from Taipei said that last year a sister temple had gifted 20 copies of the Great Sage scripture to various temples. One informant said they saw it at a temple on “Five Fingers Mountain” (Wuzhi shan, 五指山) in Hsinchu, while another said they saw an exact copy in Singapore. The internet has a few videos of the scripture being performed aloud, one in Hokkien and the other in Cantonese (video 1). The latter suggests the scripture is present in Hong Kong as well.
Video 1 – The Cantonese version of the Great Sage scripture.
I am not a translator, so I don’t plan to make my own. My hope is that a more qualified individual will use the PDF to give the scripture the proper translation and analysis that it deserves. I would love to one day host it on my site.
I have posted a brief analysis of the Great Sage scripture by Edward White. A big thank you to him.
I recently returned from a trip exploring Great Sage temples in northern and central Taiwan. I’ve decided to mirror a former article by creating a list of Monkey King temples that I’ve visited on the island. This should not be considered comprehensive. I intend to update the article as I visit new locations. I will divide the list according to the closest city/municipality and provide the address if possible. If I’ve already written an article about a particular location, I will add a link to the name. All current listed temple ages are as of 2021. See here for an overview of the Great Sage’s worship.
(Note: Always consult Google before visiting these temples.)
I. Jilong (Keelung)
1) Shengji Gong (聖濟宮) – 72-years-old
I didn’t get any information about the temple during my visit as the caretaker appeared to be mute (or just didn’t want to talk to me). Online information states the temple was built in 1949. Legend has it that the Great Sage saved villagers from rampant fires plaguing Keelung at the time. Like Yilan’s Wujian ZiyuTemple (see below), Shengji’s Great Sage and his army of monkey soldiers are portrayed as martial monks (wuseng, 武僧) with a golden headband and long hair. The alcove housing his statue is called the Shuilian Grotto-Heaven (Shuilian dongtian, 水濓洞天) after Monkey’s home the “Water Curtain Cave” (Shuilian dong, 水簾洞) on the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit. He is flanked on his left and right by Shennong (神農) and Kai Zhang Shengwang (開漳聖王), respectively
No caretakers were present at the time of my visit, so I was unable to ask questions about history or names. All statues were locked inside of a glass display case, along with a blue booklet that caught my eye. It was titled “The Great Sage Equaling Heaven’s True Scripture of Awakening People and Enlightening the World” (Qitian Dasheng xingren jueshi zhenjing, 齊天大聖醒人覺世眞經). Like in Shengji and Wujian Ziyu Temples, the Great Sage and his monkey army are depicted as martial monks. Also like Shengji, he is flanked, this time on his left, by Kai Zhang Shengwang. He is flanked on his right by Fude Zhengshen (福德正神).
The Zhengan Temple of Shilin  is definitely the smallest Great Sage house of worship that I’ve yet visited. It appears to be a small, open-front store/apartment unit that has been converted into a temple. It recognizes at least seven Great Sages, each with his own name and purpose. I’m still gathering information on the temple, so I will post their names at a later date. While most such temples have one or two spirit-mediums, Zhengan has an astounding seven, each of whom reports to a respective Great Sage. During special occasions, the spirit-mediums perform self-mortification with swords, axes, swordfish noses, spiked clubs, and spiked balls.
I had the pleasure of joining the temple on a pilgrimage to the south of Taiwan back in November of 2020. I was even blessed with the opportunity to help carry the Third Prince’s palanquin, which led the way for a much larger vehicle containing Zhengan’s numerous Great Sage statues. I’ll write more about this in the future.
The temple attendants were unable to give me any history on the temple. But I did learn that they worship a trinity: “Great Sage Sun” (Sun Dasheng, 孫大聖), the large central figure (image 1 (27)); the “Black Great Sage” (Hei Dasheng, 黑大聖), the small figure holding the gourd and whip (image 1 (34)); and the “White Great Sage” (Bai Dasheng, 白大聖), the small figure shielding his eyes and holding a staff (image 1 (42)). These color-coded names remind me of the Black and White Spirits of Impermanence, death gods who summon the souls of the recently deceased to the underworld. The temple houses many monkey god statues apart from the trinity, likely soldiers. I’ll return to get more info and better pictures. The soot black figures and bright clothing make it hard to get detailed photos.
I was told by the temple’s ritual master that she received a religious vision from the Great Sage to move from Gaoxiong in the south and look for land with good fengshui for a temple. After her third move, she founded her temple in the mountainous region of Bali. While the temple has several monkey statues, each is considered a different aspect of the singular “Lord Great Sage” (大聖爺) or “Great Sage Patriarch” (大聖祖師).
The area behind the temple features a garden with a colorful, life-sized statue of the Great Sage seated on a throne. He holds a peach of immortality in one hand and his staff in the other. His throne rests on an elevated rock outcropping painted with the characters for the “Mountain of Flowers and Fruit” (Huaguo shan, 花菓山). A series of concrete steps laid within the folds of the rocks takes you to a private heaven further into the mountain with flowers and guava, papaya, banana, and tangerine crops. It’s a great experience.
Be forewarned: The route that Google told me to take was NOT reliable. My GPS took me through a neglected cemetery up the side of a mountain. I had to cut a path through the forest, jump streams, and climb rocks before I finally arrived all sweaty and dirty. The temple personnel were amazed that I made such a trip because the route was completely unnecessary. They told me of a road leading directly to the temple! Apparently my GPS showed me the most direct route instead of the slightly longer, yet far more practical one. I highly suggest walking from the foot of Duchuantou Rd. (渡船頭路) and following the signs to the temple.
On the bright side, the caretakers were so thrilled to learn of my great interest in their god that they treated me to tea, fruit, and snacks. They are very welcoming people.
3) Qitian Dasheng Miao (齊天大聖廟) or Qitian Dasheng Ye Miao (齊天大聖爺廟) – Unknown, possibly new
The caretaker told me that the temple had not yet been consecrated and therefore wouldn’t let me take any pictures inside. However, a Chinese comment on Google says the temple “isn’t open to the outside world”, suggesting that it’s closed to the public. Based on what little I could see, the building unit appears to be someone’s home/business/personal altar. Rows and rows of god statues packaged for sale lined shelves against a back wall.
Legend has it that around 1899 a man found a monkey-shaped stone and enshrined it in a thatched shed. This was eventually converted to a temple a few years later. It was destroyed by a typhoon in 1960 but subsequently rebuilt. The temple appears to recognize a trinity, with countless monkey soldiers beneath them, each portrayed as martial monks with a golden fillet and long hair. The Great Sage has two aspects: the “Martial Great Sage” (Wu Dasheng, 武大聖) (standing statues), who exorcises evil, and the “Civil Great Sage” (Wen Dasheng, 文大聖) (seated statues), who insures the safety of people and animals.
This temple is famous for its nine-meter-tall (29.52 ft.) statue of the Great Sage, which is apparently the tallest in Taiwan. I was told that it was shipped from Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China. The members appear to only revere a single monkey god, whom they call the “Buddha Great Sage Equaling Heaven” (Qitian Dasheng Foye, 齊天大聖佛爺). The smaller statue in front of the taller one was the original focus of worship at a devotee’s home prior to the building of the temple.
1) Yusheng Si (玉聖寺) – 62-years-old (current temple)
Records for the original temple apparently go back to the Xianfeng (1850-1861) period. According to legend, Yusheng was built at the behest of a beggar who revealed himself to be the Great Sage. The current house of worship was built in 1959. The members appear to recognize at least five Great Sages (maybe more). I was told that they don’t have individual names; though, the members may have been apprehensive to share secrets with a random foreigner. They just refer to them as “Lord Great Sage Equaling Heaven” (Qitian Dasheng Ye, 齊天大聖爺). One figure has a painted face similar to pestilence gods (wenshen, 瘟神). Perhaps this version of the Great Sage serves a similar purpose. It’s interesting to note that several statues are shown holding spiked balls like those used by spirit-mediums.
2) Wuji Tianyi Jiancha Gong Tiantan (無極天壹監察宮天壇) – Unknown
This temple was closed when I visited. I had to shoot pictures of their lovely statue over the gate. I’m guessing it’s four to five-meters-tall based on the ding censor in front. I plan to go back at a later time to get pictures of the temple interior.
I did see a black command flag (Hokkien: or leng ki; Ch: hei leng qi, 黑令旗) out front, which signifies that a spirit-medium is active in the temple.
(04/24/21 – I was informed that this location is only used for particular festival days. The main temple is located at 404台中市北區富強街117巷17號.)
No attendants were present when I visited, so I couldn’t ask any questions about history or beliefs. The small temple appears to recognize three Great Sages, each represented with golden eyes. The larger central figure is depicted as a martial monk with long hair, while those to his left and right have animalistic, furry faces. Interestingly, the main statue is immediately flanked on both sides by a single wooden pole topped by a black or red Great Sage bag puppet, each depicted as a martial monk. A paper fan and two framed ink on paper paintings indicate the monkey god is referred to as the “Fighting Sage Buddha” (Dou zhan sheng fo, 鬥戰聖佛). This is a variant of the deity’s lesser used title, the “Victorious Fighting Buddha” (Dou zhansheng fo, 鬥戰勝佛).
The main altar is flanked on the right by various Buddhist deities and on the left by Daoist gods.
The front of the building is adorned with two Great Sage spirit generals (shenjiang, 神將) , something I’ve never before seen but have heard of; as well as a large black command flag, indicating the presence of a tangki spirit-medium. A large, ornate spiked ball, like those used by mediums, was positioned on the offerings table between statues of San Taizi and bottles of rice wine.
The temple is located down the street from a small joss stick factory. It was interesting to see brightly-colored bundles and rolling trays of the sticks being aired out to dry.
While an attendant with a thick Taiwanese accent told me the temple was “very, very old”, online information indicates that it was founded in 1979. Legend has it that Lord Guan sent the Great Sage to heal the head injury of a member of the Li (李) family, leading to their worship of the monkey god. (This suggests Lord Guan is considered a superior of the Great Sage in Jisheng’s celestial hierarchy). The current Great Sage statue is apparently based on an original one that presided over the incense pot at a Lord Guan temple and was later kept in the Li family home. It sits in a man-made cave, along with other monkey figures and Buddho-Daoist gods, behind metal bars. It holds a banana leaf fan like that wielded by Lady Ironfan.
A large metal rod, a replica of the monkey god’s magic staff, is locked to a side wall when not in use by the temple’s spirit-medium. It is plastered with a paper talisman.
A hall to the right of the temple houses several spirit general costumes of various protector deities.
Wanfu is touted as the oldest Qitian Dasheng temple on the island, originally serving as the home of an anti-Qing general’s wife during the Southern Ming (c. 1660s), which was later converted to a house of worship following her death. It was known for taking in orphans during the early-19th-century. The temple recognizes a trinity of Great Sages, followed by a small handful in administrative positions, and finally a plethora of soldier monkeys. The highest-ranking member of the trinity is a 300-plus-year-old Fujianese stone statue called “Laying the Foundations Elder Great Sage” (Kaiji Da Dasheng, 開基大大聖). The temple has a single spirit-medium. But the last time I checked, he was training a disciple, his nephew.
Great Sage temples from all over Taiwan look upon Wanfu as a fount of pure energy, visiting every year to procure its incense ashes in order to replenish their spiritual armies. Spirit-mediums are thought to direct these soldiers in battle while possessed by the monkey god. I personally witnessed this ash ceremony during the Shilin Zhengang Temple pilgrimage (as noted earlier). I saw at least three other temples waiting for their turn. I’m sure many more visited that day and the next.
1) Not to be confused with other Zhengan Temples in Taiwan.
2) Large, bulky costumes that rest on a performer’s shoulders. They see out through holes in the chest. Such costumes are worn during religious processions, and the walking movement causes hinged arms to swing to and fro.
In August of 2020 I happened upon an online listing for a carved wooden talisman block bearing Sun Wukong’s divine, rebellious title Qitian Dasheng (齊天大聖) (fig. 1). The seller was located in Singapore, so I asked my local friend to meet with them to make sure it was legitimate. Two weeks later I had the block in hand (thank you Antz). It measures 8.5 x 2.125 x 1 in (21.59 x 5.397 x 2.54 cm) and is made from some kind of light-colored, smooth-grained wood. The face contains a series of intricately carved Chinese characters and magic symbols.
Fig. 1 – The talisman block and a print (larger image). The image has been enhanced slightly for clarity. Fig. 2 – The talisman legend (larger version). See here for a version without the numbers.
Here I will explain the various symbols as I understand them (fig. 2). I am by no means an expert, so I am open to comment. I’d like to thank members of the “Talismans of Asia” Heritage Group (亞洲符咒文化資訊網) on Facebook for their suggestions.
1. 齊天宮 (Qitian gong) – The “Equaling Heaven Temple”, a house of worship in Singapore dedicated to Monkey. The characters are written backwards according to traditional fashion.
2. These three checkmark-shaped symbols refer to the 三清 (Sanqing, “Three Pure Ones“), the three highest gods of Daoism. An informant also told me that they can represent heaven, earth, and man.
3. 奉齊天大聖 (Feng Qitian dasheng) – “Revere the Great Sage Equaling Heaven”, the main deity of the Qitian Temple.
4. These barbwire-like designs may represent symbolic weapons of some kind. 
5. 六甲 (Liujia) – Refers to the “Six Jia“, protector spirits of Daoism. They are grouped with the Six Ding (Mugitani, 2008).
6. 六丁 (Liuding) – Refers to the “Six Ding” spirits.
7. 令雷 (Ling lei) – “Commanding thunder” refers to the 雷法 (Leifa, “Thunder Ritual”), a corpus of ritual magic that enables the user to command heavenly beings to exorcize malevolent forces (Reiter, 2010). These characters are usually reversed, 雷令 (Lei ling). This essentially commands the Ding and Jia spirits to execute the order (see #9).
8. 甲將軍 (Jia jiangjun) – “Jia generals”, a reference to the Six Jia spirits.
9. 扶身保命 (Fushen baoming) – “Support the body and save life” is the order to be executed by the Ding and Jia spirits.
10. 爪 (zhao/zhua) 罡 (gang) 卩(jie) – Two halves of the character for 印 (yin, “print”), referring to the talisman, sandwich that for “firm”. 罡 (gang) increases the intensity of the command (#9).
11. This angular symbol is the 符胆 (fu dan), the talisman’s locus of power. 
Unlike Western stamps which are pressed face down onto paper, the paper itself is pressed onto the face of the talisman block like Japanese woodblock prints (Leffman, 2020). This enables a popular temple to mass produce protective talismans without having to handwrite each one. The talisman is then consecrated with a spell and/or blood from a tangki (童乩) spirit-medium.
1) See #17 in Chan, 2014, p. 35.
2) Again, see #17 in Chan, 2014, p. 35.
Chan, M., Goh, R., Choo, P., & Tan, B. (2014). Tangki War Magic: The Virtuality of Spirit Warfare and the Actuality of Peace. Social Analysis: The International Journal of Social and Cultural Practice,58(1), 25-46. Retrieved January 23, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24718290
After Monkey’s birth from stone in chapter one, two beams of light shoot forth from his eyes,  alarming the Jade Emperor in heaven (fig. 1). The cosmic ruler then orders the personification of his eyes and ears, generals Thousand-Mile Eye (Qianliyan, 千里眼) and Fair-Wind Ear (Shunfenger, 順風耳), respectively, to trace the source:
At this command the two captains went out to the gate, and, having looked intently and listened clearly, they returned presently to report, “Your subjects, obeying your command to locate the beams, discovered that they came from the Flower-Fruit Mountain at the border of the small Aolai Country, which lies to the east of the East Pūrvavideha Continent. On this mountain is an immortal stone that has given birth to an egg. Exposed to the wind, it has been transformed into a monkey, who, when bowing to the four quarters, has flashed from his eyes those golden beams that reached the Palace of the Polestar. Now that he is taking some food and drink, the light is about to grow dim.” With compassionate mercy the Jade Emperor declared, “These creatures from the world below are born of the essences of Heaven and Earth, and they need not surprise us” (vol. 1, p. 102).
Today, these generals are celebrated as the guardians of Mazu (fig. 2), a popular sea goddess worshiped in Southern China, Macao, and Taiwan. Thousand-Mile Eye is commonly portrayed as a fierce, red warrior scanning the horizon with one hand shielding his eyes (fig. 3), while Fair-Wind Ear is green with one hand to his ear (fig. 4). According to Ruitenbeek (1999), the story of their subjugation is told in a series of circa 1880 mural paintings from the Temple of Divine Mercy (Lingcimiao, 靈慈廟) in Fengting village (楓停), Xianyou district (仙遊), Fujian.
Thousand-Miles Eye (in the murals called Jinxing yan [金星眼], “Venus-eye”), in the disguise of a lovely girl, lures men into a cave, and then dismembers and devours them.  When With-the-Wind Ear sees this, he starts a fight with Thousand-Miles Eye, but in the end the two monsters pledge to become sworn brothers. Guanyin, seated on Mount Potala, orders the Dragon’s Daughter to tell Mazu to subdue the monsters. In the first round of the battle, Mazu is forced to retreat. She then implores heavenly warriors to help her, and with their assistance is able to defeat the two monsters. Thereafter, Thousand-Miles Eye and With-the-Wind Ear become her loyal servants. First they help Mazu to fight a man-eating lion, thereafter they subdue the Evil Dragon Monster (p. 316).
I am unsure when the generals where first associated with Mazu. They are only alluded to in passing as subjugated planetary spirits in the goddess’ early 17th-century pious novelRecord of the Miracles Performed by the Heavenly Princess(Tianfei xiansheng lu, 天妃顯聖錄) (Ruitenbeek, 1999, p. 319). However, it is clear from their appearance in Journey to the West that they were associated with the Jade Emperor during the late 16th-century.  This association stretches back to at least the Shaoxing (紹興, 1131–1162) period of Song Emperor Gaozong, for they appear with the cosmic monarch among the rock carvings of the Shimen Mountain Grotto (Shimen shan shiku, 石門山石窟), one of many sites making up the world famous Dazu rock carvingsin Sichuan (fig. 5-7). 
Readers will notice that, apart from being dressed differently, neither statue is striking their characteristic pose. These poses came later and may have been influenced by earlier deities. For example, Nikaido (2011) writes that a Song-era sea god named Zhaobao Qilang (招寶七郎) is sometimes depicted shielding his eyes just like Thousand-Mile Eye, and so he cautiously suggests that, once the deity’s cult waned in popularity and yielded to Mazu, this trait may have been passed on to her general (pp. 89-90). Conversely, the poses could simply be based on postures used by the very sailors who worshiped such gods. After all, keen eyesight and hearing are skills needed to successfully navigate the open ocean.
II. Golden headbands
The generals are normally depicted wearing flowing clothing or open armor to show off their muscular physiques. Apart from their divine sashes, they are commonly shown wearing golden armbands, bracelets, and / or anklets, as well as a tiger skin at the waist. These traits appear to be consistent from all the examples that I’ve seen in Taiwan and Hong Kong. However, the statues in Taiwan stand out the mostto me because they are often depicted wearing golden fillets on their heads just like Sun Wukong (fig. 8). This is because these headbands share a common origin.
Fig. 8 – Religious statues of Fair-Wind Ear (left) and Thousand-Mile Eye (right) (larger version). Take note of the headbands. Also refer back to figures 4 and 5. Photo originally found here.
I explain in this article that the golden fillet can be traced to a list of prescribed ritual items worn by ancient Buddhist yogins in their worship of Hevajra / Heruka, a wrathful protector deity. These items appear in the 8th-century Hevajra Tantra (Dabei kongzhi jingang dajiao wang yigui jing, 大悲空智金剛大教王儀軌經):
The practitioner should wear divine ear-rings, a circlet around the head, upon each wrist a bracelet, a girdle around his waist, anklets around the ankles, arm ornaments around the upper arms and a garland of bones around the neck. His dress must be of tiger skin and his food the Five Nectars (Farrow & Menon, 2001, pp. 61-62; Cf. Linrothe, 1999, p. 250).
You will notice that all of the items associated with the generals, including the headband, the rings on the arms, wrists, and ankles, and the tiger skin are listed here. This is because wrathful protector deities were often depicted in the same attire as their followers, leading to the fillet becoming a symbol of powerful Buddhist spirits. For instance, the Hevajra Tanta describes Hevajra / Heruka as a wrathful youth wearing such clothing:
Dark blue and like the sun in colour with reddened and extended eyes, his yellow hair twisted upwards, and adorned with the five symbolic adornments,/ the circlet, the ear-rings and necklace, the bracelets and belt. These five symbols are well known for the purificatory power of the Five Buddhas./ He has the form of a sixteen-year-old youth and is clad in a tiger-skin. His gaze is wrathful. In his left hand he holds a vajra-skull, and a khatvahga [staff] likewise in his left, while in his right is a vajra of [a] dark hue… (Linrothe, 1999, p. 256; Cf. Farrow & Menon, 2001, p. 44).
The Hevajra Tantra was translated into Tibetan and Chinese during the 11th-century (Bangdel & Huntington, 2003, p. 455), allowing this iconography to spread eastward. A prime example is the 13th-century Kaiyuan Temple Pagoda carving of Sun Wukong in Fujian. He is depicted with the headband, armbands, bracelets, anklets, and possibly even a tigerskin apron (fig. 9).
Given the close cultural connection between Fujian and Taiwan, the generals’ depiction with fillets is likely based on previous examples from the southern Chinese province.
It’s interesting to note that Fair-Wind Ear’s statue from Shimen Mountain Grotto in Sichuan has the aforementioned body rings (refer back to fig. 6). His head is unfortunately damaged, though. I would be interested in analyzing similarly dressed guardian figures in the area to see if they wear a fillet.
Here is a lovely Dutch engraving of a Mazu temple from a 17th-century book by Olfert Dapper (fig. 10). The generals can be seen standing in their characteristic poses to the left (fig. 11) and right (fig. 12) of the main altar stage. Their attire includes the aforementioned body rings (and possibly tiger skin pants) but no headband.
Fig. 10 – Engraving from Memorable Mission of the Dutch East India Company up the Coast to China and into the Empire of Taising of China (Gedenkwaerdig bedryf der Nederlandsche Ooste-Indische Maetschappye, op de kuste en in het keizerrijk van Taising of Sina, 1670) (larger version). Image from the Clark Collection. Fig. 11 – A detail of General Thousand-Mile Eye (larger version). Fig. 12 – A detail of General Fair-Wind Ear (larger version).
The Puji Temple (普濟寺) in Datong district (大同區), Taipei (near my home) includes door god paintings of the two generals (fig. 13-16). They are depicted with bejeweled headbands. These demonstrate the variability of fillet designs.
1) This feat may be based on Daoist mind-training exercises where adepts try to expand their vision to the ends of the earth/cosmos. According to Robinet (1979), one source reads: “Consider that your two eyes radiate a single light which is like liquid fire and as brilliant as the stars; glowing red, it extends for ten thousand miles. The mountains, marshes, rivers, thickets and forests of the four directions are all resplendent with its light” (p. 55).
2) Wukong states in chapter 27 that he used the same trick to eat humans:
When I was a monster back at the Water-Curtain Cave, I would act like this if I wanted to eat human flesh. I would change myself into gold or silver, a lonely building, a harmless drunk, or a beautiful woman. Anyone feeble-minded enough to be attracted by me I would lure back to the cave. There I would enjoy him as I pleased, by steaming or boiling. If I couldn’t finish him off in one meal, I would dry the leftovers in the sun to keep for rainy days (Wu & Yu, 2012, vol. 2, p. 20).
3) The generals are associated with Huaguang Dadi (華光大帝) in Journey to the South (Nanyouji, 南遊記, 17th-century). They are referred to as Li Lou (離婁) and Shi Kuang (師曠) (Nikaido, 2011, p. 90). They also make an appearance in Investiture of the Gods (Fengshen yanyi, 封神演義, c. 1620). Ruitenbeek (1999) writes:
[T]hey occur, without the context of Mazu, in the guise of the brothers Gao Ming and Gao Jue. In reality, these were a Peach-tree Spirit and a Willow-tree Ogre, who had availed themselves of the divine power of two clay statues of Qianli yan and Shunfeng er in the temple of Xuan Yuan in Qipanshan. Only after these statues were smashed to pieces did they lose their power. They were subsequently transformed into Shenshu and Yulei, better known as the Door Gods (p. 319).
4) See Zhao (n.d.). These carvings are described by Hu (1994). I unfortunately don’t have access to it at the time of this writing.
Bangdel, D., & Huntington, J. C. (2003). The circle of bliss: Buddhist meditational art. Chicago, Ill: Serindia Publications.
Farrow, G. W., & Menon, I. (2001). The concealed essence of the Hevajra Tantra: With the commentary Yogaratnamālā. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
Hu, W. (1994). Sichuan jiaodao fojiao shiku yishu [Taoist and Buddhist Sichuan rock cave art]. Chengdu: Sichuan People’s Publishing.
Linrothe, R. N. (1999). Ruthless compassion: wrathful deities in early Indo-Tibetan esoteric Buddhist art. Boston, Mass: Shambhala.
Nikaido, Y. (2011). The transformation of gods in Chinese popular religion: The examples of Huaguang dadi and Zhaobao Qilang. A Selection of Essays on Oriental Studies of the Institute for Cultural Interaction Studies. Osaka: Kansai University, 85-92.
Robinet, I. (1979). Metamorphosis and deliverance from the corpse in Taoism. History of Religions, 19(1), 37-70.